Lo Han Guo -- momordica fruit

Planet Herbs Discussion Board: General Forum: Lo Han Guo -- momordica fruit
Top of pagePrevious messageNext messageBottom of page Link to this message  By Anne Salazar-Dunbar on Monday, April 21, 2008 - 08:08 am:

Interesting! Momordica charantia (bitter melon) is used extensively in Mexican herbalism for diabetes and dysentery.

Anne S-D


Top of pagePrevious messageNext messageBottom of page Link to this message  By Michael Tierra on Monday, April 21, 2008 - 02:00 am:

This is another good article on Lo Han guo. Subhuti is a good friend and i first introduced him to Chinese herbal medicine over 25 years ago and he was the editor of Way of Herbs. You will find 100's of excellent articles on Chinese medicine under ITMonline.

Check this one out on http://www.itmonline.org/arts/luohanguo.htm

LUO HAN GUO

Sweet Fruit Used as Sugar Substitute and Medicinal Herb

by Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon

Luo Han Guo (luohanguo) refers to the fruit of Siraitia grosvenori, formerly called Momordica grosvenori, a member of the Curcubitaceae (1). The fruit is well-known for its sweet taste; this plant family (Gourd family) has other members that contain remarkable sweet components, including additional species of the genus Siraitia (e.g., S. siamensis, S. silomaradjae, S. sikkimensis, S. africana, S. borneensis, and S. taiwaniana 2) and the popular herb jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum). The latter herb, which has both sweet and bitter tasting triterpene glycosides in its leaves, is now sold worldwide as a tea and made into an extract for use in numerous health-care products (3). Luohanguo has been used as a medicinal herb for treating cough and sore throat (4) and is popularly considered, in southern China, to be a longevity aid (5). These are the same uses as listed for jiaogulan. Luohanguo has more recently been developed into a non-caloric sweetener to compete with other herbal sweeteners such stevioside from the unrelated Stevia leaf. (6).
Luo Han Guo on the vine. Mountains in Guangxi Province.

Luohanguo is primarily grown in southern China, mainly in Guangxi Province, with most of the product from the mountains of Guilin. The steep mountains provide shade and they are frequently surrounded by mists that further protect against excessive sun, yet the temperature in this southern province is warm. The wild plant is rare, thus luohanguo has been cultivated in the region for many years. There are descriptions of its cultivation in the area dating back to 1813 (5). Guilin now has a 4,000-acre luohanguo growing area that produces 10,000 pieces of fruit annually (7). Most of these fields are in Yongfu and Lingui Counties, which are recognized in China as sites having an unusually high number of residents living to an age 100 years or more (8, 9), which some attribute to the consumption of luohanguo, as well as the pristine environment. However, the local residents mainly proclaim the benefits of tranquil lifestyle, simple diet, and regular exercise.

Longjiang Town (Dragon River) of Yongfu County was named "Home of Chinese luohanguo Fruits." Several factories have been established in this region to produce luohanguo extracts and finished products, the oldest being the Yongfu Pharmaceuticals Factory. A carefully prepared visual presentation of luohanguo cultivation and its environs is offered by the Dragon River Company, a New York based international company that set-up manufacturing in the town of Dragon River.
Picking fresh luohanguo

Luohanguo is collected as a round green fruit that turns brown upon drying. The sweet taste of luohanguo comes primarily from mogrosides, a group of terpene glycosides, present at the level of about 1% of the fleshy part of the fruit (10). Both the fresh and dried fruits are extracted to yield a powder that is 80% or more mogrosides. The mogrosides have been numbered, 1-5, and the main component is called mogroside-5, previously known as esgoside (see chemical structure diagram below). Other, similar compounds from luohanguo have been labeled siamenoside and neomogroside. The mixed mogrosides are estimated to be about 300 times as sweet as sugar by weight, so that the 80% extracts are nearly 250 times sweeter than sugar; pure mogrosides 4 and 5 may be 400 times as sweet as sugar by weight.
Chemical structure of esgoside

A process for making a useful sweetener from luohanguo was patented in 1995 by Procter and Gamble Company (2). As described in the patent application, the fruit itself, though sweet, has too many additional flavors that would make it unsuitable for widespread use as a sweetener, so P&G developed a method for processing it to eliminate the undesired flavors. The fruit is seldom used fresh anyway, due to the problems of storing it; further, the raw fruit has unattractive flavors and a tendency to easily form off-flavors by fermentation; also, its pectin eventually gels. So, it is common to dry the fruits for any further use, and this is how they appear in Chinese herb shops. The fruits are slowly dried in ovens; the drying process preserves the fruit and removes most of the objectionable flavor of the fresh fruit, which is associated with volatile components. Unfortunately, the drying also causes the formation of bitter, astringent flavors. These flavors limit the use of the dried fruits and dried fruit extracts to the preparation of dilute teas and soups and products to which sugar, honey, and the like are added. In the P&G process, the fresh fruit is picked before ripening and allowed to complete its ripening during storage so that processing begins with the just-ripe fruit. The peel and seeds are then removed, and the mashed fruit becomes the basis of a concentrated fruit juice or puree that can be used in food manufacturing. Further processing involves using solvents to remove volatile and off-flavor components. Numerous sugar substitutes derived from luohanguo by similar processes that isolate the sweet compounds are now readily available for manufacturing and for kitchen use.
HISTORY AND TRADITION
Picture of Luo Han

During the Tang Dynasty, Guilin was a major Buddhist retreat area with many temples. The fruit (guo, a term used mainly for gourd-like fruits) is named after the luohan, which are advanced Buddhist practitioners (see classic painting of some luohan, left; in India, they are called arhats) The story told in China is that knowledge of this fruit first emerged from monks who were using it during the 13th Century. Due to its limited natural growing area (mainly mountain sides in Guangxi and Guangdong; to a much lesser extent, in Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Hainan Island), and difficulty in cultivating it successfully, this fruit did not enter the general herb tradition of China, which depended on more abundant products. So, it is not mentioned in the traditional herb guides (10).

The herb became more prominent during the 20th century. One early English-language report on it is an unpublished manuscript written in 1938 by Professor G.W. Groff and Hoh Hin Cheung (11). The fruits were reported to be frequently used as the main ingredient in cooling drinks (that is, drinks consumed to counteract hot weather, fever, or disorders described in the tradition as warm or hot in nature). The juice of fresh fruits was known to be very sweet. Groff and Hoh noted that the "luohan fruit of commerce, when cooked with pork or steeped with tea, provides a common Chinese household remedy for colds and congestion of the lungs." They confirmed through interviews that the fruit had only become extensively used in China in recent history. Still, it appears that the development of distinct cultivars, and extensive knowledge of its growth, pollination, and climatic requirements implies a fairly long history of cultivation activity by at least a limited group of people.

The herb had been brought to the U.S. early in the 20th century. Groff mentions that during a 1917 visit to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, botanist Frederick Coville showed him a luohan fruit obtained from a local Chinese store in Washington, DC.. Seeds from luohan fruits purchased in a San Francisco Chinese store were included in the original botanical description of the species in 1941.

The beginning of research into the sweet component of luohanguo is attributed to C.H. Lee, who published an English report in 1975 (12), and to Tsunematsu Takemoto working in Japan in the early 1980s (he later turned his attention to studying jiaogulan (3). Development of luohanguo products in China has grown steadily since that time, particularly with the more recent development of highly concentrated extracts for use as sweeteners.

Probably the best depiction of luohanguo medicinal use in southern China during the 20th century is that given by Dai and Liu in their book Fruit as Medicine (4), originally published in Chinese in 1982, then published in English in 1986. Here is their description:

Dried fruit may be bought in the city markets. The outer surface of the dried fruit is round and smooth, dusty yellow-brown or dusty green-brown. It is covered with fine, soft hair. The fruit is covered by a hard but thin shell. Inside is a partly dry, flexible substance containing the juice, as well as a large number of seeds. The skin, juicy part, and seeds all have a good sweet flavor. Its nature is cool, and it has no poison. The fruit helps relieve sunstroke, moistens the lungs, eliminates phlegm, stops cough, and promotes bowel movements.

Applications:
1. Heat stroke with thirst: Take one fruit, break it open and stir into boiled water. Drink the liquid in place of tea.
2. Acute or chronic throat inflammation; aphonia. Take half a fruit and 3-5 seeds of sterculia. Cover with water and simmer, then swallow very slowly.
3. Chronic cough. Take 1 piece of fruit, cover with water, simmer, and drink the liquid. Do this twice each day.
4. Constipation in the aged. Take 2 pieces of fruit, obtain the juicy part and the seed (put the shell aside for other uses), break apart, cover with water, and simmer. Drink before going to bed.
5. Diabetes. Take an appropriate measure of the fruit and crush it or simmer it into a thick juice and add to food being prepared, using it as a substitute for sugar.
Luo Han Guo Chong Ji

There are several commercial preparations of luohanguo. One of the common ones is Luo Han Guo Chong Ji (chongji is an instant extract granule or dissolving block of extract; the product is shown here, made at the Youngfu Pharmaceutical Factory in Yongfu County of Guilin). It is widely distributed in China, Hong Kong, and via Chinese shops in the West.

Numerous other products are now made with luohanguo, alone or, more commonly, with other herbs. Below are some samples of such products in tea form.
Luohanguo with ginkgo for cough A product of the Shantou Great Impression Group Momordica Tea by Life Rising

The box pictured on the left is one of several products of the Guilin Gexianweng Pharmaceutical Company. This one is Luohanguo with ginkgo for cough; another features luohanguo with chrysanthemum for heat stroke and headache, and another combines luohanguo with asparagus root, oldenlandia, scutellaria, and pearl, as a detoxicant blend. The middle package is a product of the Shantou Great Impression Group, and is made with luohanguo, chrysanthemum, and oroxylum extracts added to green tea leaves. The box to the right is by Life Rising, an American company founded by a Chinese immigrant TCM doctor, Guo Zhengang. The luohanguo is combined with black tea (with or without licorice root) to make the products.

Recent work on luohanguo includes investigation of the antioxidant activity of the mogrosides (13) and their potential use as cancer prevention compounds (14). This suggested effect is based on the understanding that antioxidants can produce significant reversal or suppression of the early stage of cancer development, which has been an area of particular interest for tea drinking (15). Further, luohanguo and its sweetening component are often mentioned in relation to diabetes and obesity, because it can substitute for caloric sugars normally consumed in the diet.
REFERENCES

1. Ling Yeouruenn, A New Compendium of Materia Medica, 1995 Science Press, Beijing.
2. Dawson GE, et al., Process and composition for sweet juice from Cucurbitaceae fruit, U.S. patent 5,411,755, May 2, 1995.
3. Blumert M and Liu Jialiu, Jiaogulan: China's Immortality Herb, 1999 Torchlight Pub., Badger, CA.
4. Dai Yinfang and Liu Chengjun, Fruit as Medicine, 1986 The Ram's Skull Press, Kuranda, Australia.
5. Dragon River Health Products, http://www.dragonriver.net/eng/home.html
6. Kinghorn AD and Soejarto DD, Discovery of terpenoid and phenolic sweeteners from plants, Pure Applied Chemistry 2002; 74(7): 1169-1179.
7. Guangxi Science and Technology Information Network, http://www.gxsti.net.cn/esti/2resourse.htm
8. People's Daily Online, Culture: Guilin has more centenarians, November 26, 1999; http://fpeng.peopledaily.com.cn/199911/26/eng19991126R107.html
9. Strait's Times, Village of longevity gets onto tourist map, http://straitstimes.asia1.com.sg/mnt/html/webspecial/gallery/livelong/story.html
10. Hsu HY, et al., Oriental Materia Medica, 1986 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA
11. Croom, EM Jr., Luo Han Guo: A literature review, http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/articles/momordica%20croom.html
12. Lee CH., Intense sweetener from Lo Han Kuo, Experientia 1975, 31(5): 533-534.
13. Shi H, et al., Antioxidant property of fructus momordicae extract, 1996 Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International 1996; 40 (6): 1111-1121.
14. Konoshima T and Takasaki M, Cancer-chemopreventive effects of natural sweeteners and related compounds, Pure Applied Chemistry 2002; 74(7): 1309-1316.
15. Katiyar SK and Mukhtar H, Tea antioxidants in cancer chemoprevention, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Supplement 1997; 27: 59-67.

January 2004


Top of pagePrevious messageNext messageBottom of page Link to this message  By Michael Tierra on Monday, April 21, 2008 - 01:51 am:

This is a very important botanical. A fruit that is most commonly used for coughs. It was the most effective in controlling the cough that occurred as a result of the recent spate of flues. Because of its sweet flavor, it has been traditionally used as a non-caloric sweetener and it is sold in small cubes to be dissolved in water and taken as a tea. These are quite cheap from Chinese pharmacy's and I recommend having them on hand.

Recently I purchased a crystalized extract of it combined with xylitol as an across the board non-caloric sweetener that is tolerated by diabetics and does not affect the glycemic index.

The following is from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siraitia_grosvenorii


Siraitia grosvenorii
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Siraitia grosvenorii
Siraitia grosvenorii (luohan guo) fruits
Siraitia grosvenorii (luohan guo) fruits
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Violales
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Genus: Siraitia
Species: S. grosvenorii
Binomial name
Siraitia grosvenorii
(Swingle) C.Jeffrey ex A.M.Lu & Zhi Y.Zhang

Siraitia grosvenorii is an herbaceous perennial vine native to southern People's Republic of China and Northern Thailand and best known for its fruit, the luo han guo (traditional Chinese: 羅漢果/simplified Chinese: 罗汉果; pinyin: luhn guǒ; literally "arhat fruit" or monk's fruit). It is one of four species in the genus Siraitia. Botanical synonyms include Momordica grosvenorii and Thladiantha grosvenorii. The fruit is one of several that have been called longevity fruit.[1]

The other species of the genus Siraitia are: S. siamensis from Thailand, S. sikkimensis and S. silomaradjae from India, and S. taiwaniana from the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The vine grows to 3 to 5 m long, climbing over other plants by means of tendrils which twine round anything they touch. The narrow, heart-shaped leaves are 1020 cm long. The fruit is globose, 57 cm in diameter, and contains a sweet, fleshy, edible pulp and numerous seeds.

The fruit extract is nearly 300 times sweeter than sugar and has been used as a natural sweetener in China for nearly a millennium due to its flavor and lack of food energy, only 2.3 kcal/g (9.6 kJ/g). It has also been used in traditional Chinese medicine.[2]
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Cultivation
* 2 Traditional uses
* 3 Active agents
o 3.1 Toxicity
o 3.2 Current research
* 4 Cultivation and marketing
o 4.1 Traditional processing
o 4.2 The Procter & Gamble process
o 4.3 Products
* 5 History
o 5.1 Rediscovery in the 20th century
* 6 References
* 7 External links

[edit] Cultivation

It is grown primarily in the southwestern Chinese province of Guangxi (mostly in the mountains of Guilin), as well as in Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, and Jiangxi. These mountains lend the plants shadows and often are surrounded by mists; because of this the plants are protected from the worst of the sun. Nonetheless, the climate in this southern province is warm. The plant is rarely found in the wild and has hence been cultivated for hundreds of years.

Records as early as 1813 mention the cultivation of this plant in the Guangxi province.[3] At present, the Guilin mountains harbor a plantation of 16 square kilometers with a yearly output of about 10,000 fruits. Most of the plantations are located in Yongfu County and Lingui County, which in China are renowned for the extraordinary number of centenarians. This is usually attributed to the consumption of this fruit and the unspoiled nature. The inhabitants themselves, however, are of the opinion that the reason lies in their calm lifestyle and simple nutrition.

Longjiang town ("Dragon River") in Yongfu County has acquired the name "home of the Chinese luohanguo fruit"; a number of companies specialised in making luohanguo extracts and finished products have been set up in the area. The Yongfu Pharmaceutical Factory is the oldest of these.

[edit] Traditional uses

The plant is most prized for its sweet fruits, which are used for medicinal purposes, and as a sweetener.[4] The fruits are generally sold in dried form, and traditionally used in herbal tea or soup. They are used for respiratory ailments, sore throats and reputed to aid longevity.[5]

The best way to describe the medicinal use of luohan guo in southern China during the 20th century can be found in the book [6] written by Dai and Liu. It was written in Chinese in 1982 and translated into English in 1986. Here is their description:

The dried fruit may be bought in a market. The surface of the fruit is round and smooth, it has a yellow-brownish or green-brownish colour, and is covered by fine hairs. The fruit has a hard but thin shell. Inside, one finds a partially dried, soft substance which contains the juice and a large quantity of seeds. All components are very sweet. Their nature is cool and not toxic. The fruit can act as a remedy for sun stroke, wet the lungs, remove phlegm, stop cough and aid defecation.[7]

Heat stroke and thirst
Take a fruit, break it open and pour hot water on it to make an infusion. Drink the infusion in place of tea.
Acute or chronic infection of the larynx (aphonia)
Take the halves of a fruit and 3 to 5 sterculia seeds, cover this with water and leave it to boil. Swallow very slowly.
Chronic cough
Take a piece of the fruit, cover it with water and leave it to boil. Drink the resulting liquid twice daily.
Constipation due to old age
Take two fruits and, using only the soft parts and seeds, divide it into pieces. Cover these pieces with water, boil it, and drink the liquid before going to bed.
Diabetes
Take an appropriate amount of fruit squash or boil it so as to get concentrated juice. Use this as a substitute for sugar in your nutrition..[8]

[edit] Active agents

The sweet taste of luohan guo comes mainly from the mogrosides, a group of Triterpene-Glycosides that make up approximately 1% of the flesh of the fresh fruit. Through extraction, a powder containing 80% mogrosides can be obtained.[9]

Five different mogrosides are known and they are known by names with the numbers 1 to 5. The main mogroside in this plant is mogroside-5, that was previously known as esgoside.[10]
Structural formula of mogroside 5
Structural formula of mogroside 5

Other similar agents in luohan guo are Siamenoside and Neogroside.[11]

The pure mogroside mix present results in a sweetness that is 300 times sweeter than sugar. The 80% mix is approximately 250 times sweeter. Pure mogroside-5 and -5 can be up to 400 times as sweet.


[edit] Toxicity

There are no reported incidents of negative side effects of luohan guo that are known. It is classed by the American Food and Drug Administration as a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) product. There are no restrictions on consuming the fruit or its extracts.

[edit] Current research

Recent research on luohan guo suggests that the mogroside works as an antioxidant[12] and that it helps to prevent cancer.[13][14]

The use of luohan guo as a remedy for diabetes and overweight has been mentioned, as it can be used as a substitute for sugar.[15]

Luohan guo has been shown to be useful against the Epstein-Barr virus. [16]

The plant also contains a glycoprotein called momorgrosvin, which has been shown to inhibit ribosomal protein synthesis[17]

[edit] Cultivation and marketing

[edit] Traditional processing
Dried Siraitia grosvenorii fruit, cut open
Dried Siraitia grosvenorii fruit, cut open

Luohan guo is harvested in the form of a round green fruit, which becomes brown on drying. It is rarely used in its fresh form, as it is hard to store. Furthermore, it develops a rotten taste on fermentation, which adds to the unwanted flavours already present.

Thus the fruits are usually dried before further use and are sold in precisely this fashion in Chinese herbal shops. The fruits are slowly dried in ovens, which preserves it and removes most of the unwanted aromas. However, this technique also leads to the formation of several bitter and astringent aromas. This limits the use of the dried fruits and extracts to the preparation of diluted tea, soup, and as a sweetener for products that would usually have sugar or honey added to them.[18]

[edit] The Procter & Gamble process

The process for the manufacture of a useful sweetener from luohan guo was patented in 1995 by Procter & Gamble. The patent states that, while luohan guo is very sweet, it has too many interfering aromas, which render it useless for general application. Thus the company developed a process for the removal of the interfering aromas.

In this process, the fresh fruit is harvested before it is fully mature, and is then matured in storage so that it may be processed precisely when it is mature. The shell and seeds are then removed, and the pulped fruit is made into a fruit concentrate or puree. This is then used in the further production of food. Solvents are used, amongst other things, to remove the interfering aromas.

[edit] Products

There are a number of commercially prepared luohan guo products:

One of the most famous ones is powdered instant luohan guo, which is also sold by the Yongfu company. It is sold in China, Hong Kong and in Chinese shops in the West.

In addition, there are a number of other products which contain luohan guo either on its own or in a mix with other herbs. For example it is used with Ginkgo against cough, with chrysanthemum against heatstroke and headache or with asparagus, Oldenlandia, Scutellaria, and pearl powder to detoxify.

[edit] History

During the Tang dynasty, Guilin was one of the most important Buddhist retreats containing many temples. The fruit was named after the arhats (Chinese: 罗汉; pinyin: luhn), a group of Buddhist monks who, due to their proper way of life and meditation, achieved enlightenment and were said to have been redeemed. According to Chinese history, the fruit was first mentioned in the records of the 13th century monks who used it.

However, plantation space was limited: it consisted mainly in the slopes of the Guangxi and Guangdong mountains, and to a lesser degree in Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Hainan. This and the difficulty of cultivation meant that the fruit did not become part of the Chinese herbal tradition, which depended on more readily available products. This is also the reason why one finds no mention of it in the traditional guides to herbs.

[edit] Rediscovery in the 20th century

The herb became better known in the 20th century. The first report on the herb in English was found in an unpublished manuscript written in 1938 by Professor G. W. Groff and Hoh Hin Cheung. The report stated that the fruits were often used as the main ingredients of "cooling drinks," that is, as remedies for hot weather, fever, or other dysfunctions traditionally associated with warmth or heat.

It was known that the juice of the fruits was very sweet.

Groff and Hoh realised that the fruit was an important Chinese domestic remedy for the treatment of cold and pneumonia when consumed with pork.

Interviews have confirmed that the fruit only recently gained importance in Chinese history. Nonetheless, it appears that a small group of people had mastered its cultivation a long time ago and had accumulated extensive knowledge on growth, pollination, and climatic requirements of the plant.

The fruit came to the United States in the early 20th century. Groff mentions that during a visit to the American ministry of agriculture in 1917, the botanic Frederick Coville showed him a luohanguo fruit bought in a Chinese shop in Washington. Seeds of the fruit which had been bought in Chinese shop in San Francisco were entered into the universal botanic description of the species in 1941.

The first research into the sweet component of luohanguo is attributed to C. H. Lee, who wrote an English report on it in 1975, and also to Tsunematsu Takemoto, who worked on it the early 1980s in Japan (later Takemoto decided to concentrate on the similar sweet plant, jiaogulan).

The development of luohanguo products in China has continued ever since, focusing in particular on the development of concentrated extracts.

[edit] References

Much of the content of this article comes from the equivalent German-language Wikipedia article (retrieved February 16, 2006).

1. ^ Ling Yeouruenn, A New Compendium of Materia Medica, 1995 Science Press, Beijing.
2. ^ Ling Yeouruenn, A New Compendium of Materia Medica, 1995 Science Press, Beijing.
3. ^ Dragon River Health Products, http://www.dragonriver.net/eng/home.html
4. ^ Kinghorn AD and Soejarto DD, Discovery of terpenoid and phenolic sweeteners from plants, Pure Applied Chemistry 2002; 74(7): 1169-1179.
5. ^ Dai Yinfang and Liu Chengjun, Fruit as Medicine, 1986 The Ram's Skull Press, Kuranda, Australia.
6. ^ Fruit as a medicine
7. ^ Fruits As Medicine: A Safe and Cheap Form of Traditional Chinese Food Therapy by Dai Yin-Fang, Liu Cheng-Jun, translated by Ron Edwards, and Gong Zhi-Mei 1986
8. ^ Fruits As Medicine: A Safe and Cheap Form of Traditional Chinese Food Therapy by Dai Yin-Fang, Liu Cheng-Jun, translated by Ron Edwards, and Gong Zhi-Mei 1986
9. ^ http://www.itmonline.org/arts/luohanguo.htm Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon Luo Han Guo -Sweet Fruit Used as Sugar Substitute and Medicinal Herb
10. ^ http://www.itmonline.org/arts/luohanguo.htm Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon
11. ^ http://www.itmonline.org/arts/luohanguo.htm Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon Luo Han Guo -Sweet Fruit Used as Sugar Substitute and Medicinal Herb
12. ^ Shi H, et al., Antioxidant property of fructus momordicae extract, 1996 Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International 1996; 40 (6): 1111-1121.
13. ^ Konoshima T and Takasaki M, Cancer-chemopreventive effects of natural sweeteners and related compounds, Pure Applied Chemistry 2002; 74(7): 1309-1316. [1]
14. ^ Katiyar SK and Mukhtar H, Tea antioxidants in cancer chemoprevention, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Supplement 1997; 27: 59-67.
15. ^ http://www.itmonline.org/arts/luohanguo.htm Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon Luo Han Guo Sweet Fruit Used as Sugar Substitute and Medicinal Herb
16. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSear ch=17477572 Akihisa T, Hayakawa Y, Tokuda H, Banno N, Shimizu N, Suzuki T, Kimura Y. Cucurbitane Glycosides from the Fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii and Their Inhibitory Effects on Epstein-Barr Virus Activation. J Nat Prod. 2007 May 25;70(5):783-788. Epub 2007
17. ^ Tsang, K.Y. and T.B. Ng (2001). "Isolation and characterization of a new ribosome inactivating protein, momorgrosvin, from seeds of the monk's fruit Momordica grosvenorii". Life Sciences 68: 773-784.
18. ^ Hsu HY, et al., Oriental Materia Medica, 1986 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, California